Forage Yields in Turkey Hill Wilderness in East Texas for White-tailed Deer
Keywords:Browse, forage preference, utilization, stocking
Wilderness areas are often considered quality areas where natural processes occur without human activity. It is often assumed that these unmanaged areas will provide and support quality wildlife habitat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the forage production and stocking potential of an unmanaged wilderness area in east Texas. Four different community types were evaluated for forage yield, forage availability, and browse utilization for whit-tailed deer. Results show that although a diversity of forage yields were found in the spring, summer forage yield failed to differentiate in the summer. Availability also differed between community types, but utilization appears to be lower than what could be supported in this area.
Blair, R. J. 1960. Deer forage increased by thinning in a Louisiana loblolly pine plantation. J. Wildl. Manage. 24(4):401-405.
Bonham, C. D. 1989. Measurements for terrestrial vegetation. John Wiley and Sons: New York. 338pp.
Byrd, N. A. 1980. A guide for service foresters in the south. USDA For. Serv. Southeastern Area SA-FR-10. 45pp.
Dasmann, R. F. 1964. Wildlife biology. Second Ed. John Wiley and Sons: New York. 231pp.
Estrada-Bustillo, V., and M. S. Fountain. 1995. Intensive site preparation following site disturbance did not alter succession of woods species in pineywoods of East Texas. Pages 517-524 in:Proc. eight biennial southern silvicultural research conf; 1994 Nov. 1-3; Auburn, AL. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-1. Asheville, NC: USDA For. Serv. South. Research Stn. 633pp.
Franklin, S. B., P. A. Robertson, J. S. Fralish, and S. M. Kettler. 1993. Overstory vegetation and successional trends of Land Between the Lakes, USA. J. Veg. Sci. 4:509-520.
French, C. E., L. C. McEwen, N. D. Magruder, R. H. Ingram, and R. W. Swift. 1956. Nutrient requirements for growth and antler development in the white-tailed deer J. Wildl. Mange. 20:221-232.
Halls, L. K. 1973. Flowering an fruiting of southern browse species. USDA For. Serv. South. For. Exp. Stn. Res. Pap. SO-90. 10pp.
Halls, L.K., 1984. White tailed deer: Ecology and management. Stackpole Books: Harrisburg, PA. 870pp.
Halls, L.K., and C. H. Boyd. 1982. Influence of managed pine stands and mixed pine/hardwood stands on well being of deer. USDA For. Serv. South. For. Exp. Stn. Res. Pap. SO-183. 18pp.
Harris, L. D. 1984. The fragmented forest. Univ. of Chicago Press: Chicago. 211pp.
Heady, H. F. 1964. Palatability of herbage and animal preference. J. Range Manage. 17:76-82.
Hill R. W. 1995. Native forage responses to different silvicultural systems for shortleaf-loblolly pine in East Texas:Economic implications for white-tailed deer and cattle management. MSF Thesis. Stephen F. Austin State Univ., Nacogdoches, TX 179pp.
Hinkle, C. R. 1989. Forest communities of the Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee. J. Tenn. Academy Sci. 64(3):123-129.
Honacki, J. H., K. E. Kinman, and J. W. Koeppl. 1982. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematics Collections: Lawrence, Kansas. 694pp.
Kroll, J. C. 1991. A practical guide to producing and harvesting white-tailed deer. College of Forestry, Stephen F. Austin State Univ., Nacogdoches, Texas. 591pp.
Korschgen, L. J. 1980. Procedures for food-habits analyses. Pages 113-127 in S. D. Schemnits, ed. Wildlife Management Techniques Manual. The Wildlife Society, Washington, D. C.
LeGrande, G. 1998. Vegetation composition on the Turkey Hill and Upland Island Wilderness Areas. Master’s Thesis. Stephen F. Austin State Univ.,Nacogdoches, TX. 219pp.
Lay D. W. 1967b. Deer range appraisal in eastern Texas. J. Wildl. Manage. 31(3):426-432.
McNab, W. E. 1996. Classification of local and landscape scale ecological types in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 39:215-229.
Monfore, J. D. 1986. Cattle grazing on western pine plantations is compatible with mule deer summer range use. Trans. Western Sect. The Wildl. Soc. 22:85-89.
Pogge, F. L. 1967. Elm as deer browse. J. Wildl. Manage: 31:354-356.
Smalley. 1986. Site classification and evaluation for the Interior Uplands. So. Tech. Pub. R8-TP. 571pp.
Thill, R. E. 1984. Deer and cattle diets on Louisiana pine-hardwood sites. J. Wildl. Manage. 48(3):788-798.
USDA Forest Service. 1999. National Plants Database.
Veteto, E. D., and R. V. Hart. 1971. Browsers or grazers. Texas Parks and Wildl. 29:12-15.
Veteto, E. D., and R. V. Hart. 1974. Deer-cattle relationship : Study-feeding habitat comparisons. Job No. 11, in Oak Woodland Wildl. Manage. Survey. Fed. Aid Project No. WO74-R-18. 11pp.
Walker, L. C. 1991. The southern forest. Univ. of Texas Press, Austin, TX. 322pp.
Zhang, L., B. P. Oswald, and T. H. Green. 1999. Relationships between overstory species and community classification of the Sipsey Wilderness, Alabama. For. Ecology and Manage. 114(1999):377-383.