Assessing the Vegetative Diversity of an East Texas Golf Course


  • Brian P. Oswald Arthur Temple College of Forestry and Agriculture Stephen F. Austin State University
  • Penny G. Lanham
  • Hans Williams
  • David Kulhavy


edge effects, biodiversity, patches


The vegetative diversity between fairways (introduced patches) and out-of-bounds areas (remnant patches) were assessed at the Pineywoods Country Club in the Pineywoods Region of East Texas. Nested plots were placed along transects and canopy cover, percent cover, number of individuals by species, tree density, and percent cover of ground cover materials were analyzed using ordination. Diameter, shrub and herbaceous percent cover, and canopy cover were tested for normality utilizing a Shapiro-Wilk normality test, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney used to analyze edge plots and interior plots, and  @Risk goodness-of-fit measures utilized to identify percent cover. Statistical differences (0.05 α level) between the edge and interior dbh and shrub datasets and a similarity between the edge and interior datasets of the overstory and herbaceous strata were found. Interior shrub plots had a higher H’ and D than the edge plots. Canopy cover was > 70%, and herbaceous species abundance was often higher than the shrub stratum. Beta diversity indicated that patches were diverse. Disturbances altered the structure and function of the remnant patches. Canopy cover was high over edge plots; however, light was able to reach the ground at an angle across the fairway. The exceptional drought in 2011 most likely influenced these results.

Author Biography

Brian P. Oswald, Arthur Temple College of Forestry and Agriculture Stephen F. Austin State University

Joe C. Denman Professor of Forestry


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How to Cite

Oswald, B. P., Lanham, P. G., Williams, H., & Kulhavy, D. (2017). Assessing the Vegetative Diversity of an East Texas Golf Course. Texas Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 30, 38–52. Retrieved from



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