Assessing the Vegetative Diversity of an East Texas Golf Course
Keywords:edge effects, biodiversity, patches
The vegetative diversity between fairways (introduced patches) and out-of-bounds areas (remnant patches) were assessed at the Pineywoods Country Club in the Pineywoods Region of East Texas. Nested plots were placed along transects and canopy cover, percent cover, number of individuals by species, tree density, and percent cover of ground cover materials were analyzed using ordination. Diameter, shrub and herbaceous percent cover, and canopy cover were tested for normality utilizing a Shapiro-Wilk normality test, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney used to analyze edge plots and interior plots, and @Risk goodness-of-fit measures utilized to identify percent cover. Statistical differences (0.05 α level) between the edge and interior dbh and shrub datasets and a similarity between the edge and interior datasets of the overstory and herbaceous strata were found. Interior shrub plots had a higher H’ and D than the edge plots. Canopy cover was > 70%, and herbaceous species abundance was often higher than the shrub stratum. Beta diversity indicated that patches were diverse. Disturbances altered the structure and function of the remnant patches. Canopy cover was high over edge plots; however, light was able to reach the ground at an angle across the fairway. The exceptional drought in 2011 most likely influenced these results.
Albright, S.C., W.L. Winston, C.J. Zappe, M. Broadie, P. Kolesar. 2010. Data analysis and decision making 4th ed. South-Western Cengage Learning, Mason, Ohio.
Cheplick, G.P. 1998. Seed dispersal and seedling establishment in grass populations. In: G.P. Cheplick, (ed.), Population biology of grasses, p. 84-105. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Clements, F.E. 1916. Plant succession: An analysis of the development of vegetation. Carnegie Institution of Washington, D. C.
Coulson, R.N. and M.D. Tchakerian. 2010. Basic landscape ecology. KEL Partners, Inc., College Station, Texas.
Cullinan, V. I. and J. M. Thomas, J. M. 1992. A comparison of quantitative methods for examining landscape pattern and scale. Landscape Ecology, 7:211-227.
Daubenmire, R. 1959. A canopy-coverage method of vegetational analysis. Northwest Science, 33:43-64.
Daubenmire, R. 1968. Plant communities: a textbook of plant synecology. Harper & Row Publishers, New York.
Drury, W. H., and I.C.T. Nisbet. 1973. Succession. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 54:331-368.
Fordham, M. 1988. Conservation management on golf courses. Journal of the Sports Turf Research Institute, 64:10- 18.
Forman, R.T.T. 1995. Land mosaics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Forman. R.T.T., and M. Godron. 1981. Patches and structural components for a landscape ecology. BioScience, 3: 733-740.
Fraver, S. 1994. Vegetation responses along edge-to-interior gradient in the mixed hardwood forests of the Roanoke River Basin, North Carolina. Conservation Biology, 8:822-832.
Gange, A.C., D.E. Lindsay, and J.M. Schofield, 2003. The ecology of golf courses. Biologist, 50:63-68.
Hill, M.O. 1973. Diversity and evenness: A unifying notation and its consequences. Ecology, 54:427-432.
NOAA. 2011. State of the Climate: August 2011. National Climatic Data Center. URL: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/national/2011/8 [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration].
Opdam, P., R. Foppen, and C. Vos. 2002. Bridging the gap between ecology and spatial planning in landscape ecology. Landscape Ecology 16:767-779.
Peet, R.K. 1974. The measurement of species diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 5:285-307.
Pielou, E.C. 1969. An introduction to mathematical ecology. Wiley, New York.
Ranney, J.W., M.C. Bruner, and J.B. Levenson. 1981. The importance of edge in the structure and dynamics of forest islands. In: R.L. Burgess and D.M. Sharpe, eds. Forest Island Dynamics in Man-Dominated Landscapes, p. 67-94. Springer-Verlag, NY, US.
Shannon, C. & Weaver, W. 1949. The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL, US.
Tanner, R.A. and A.C. Gange. 2005. Effects of golf courses on local biodiversity. Landscape and Urban Planning, 71:137-146.
Tansley, A.G. 1935. The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology, 16:284-307.
Terman, M.R. 1997. Natural links: naturalistic golf courses as wildlife habitat. Landscape and Urban Planning, 38:183-197.
The Soil Survey of Nacogdoches County, Texas. 1980. [United States Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service and Forest Service in cooperation with Texas Agricultural Experiment Station]. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, US.
Turner, M.G. 1989. Landscape ecology: The effect of pattern on process. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 20:171-197.
USACE. 1987. Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual: Wetlands Research Program Technical Report Y-87-1. [Waterways Experiment Station Environmental Laboratory.] United State Army Corps of Engineers. Vicksburg, MS, US.
Weaver, J.E. and F.E. Clements. 1938. Plant ecology. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., NY, USA.
Wiens, J.A. 2002. Riverine landscapes: Taking landscape ecology into the water. Freshwater Biology, 47:501-515.
William-Linera, G. 1990. Vegetation structure and environmental condition of forest edges in Panama. Journal of Ecology, 78:356-373.
Wu, J. 2007. Past, present, and future of landscape ecology. Landscape Ecology, 22:1433-1435.